Turkey

2018 Turkey Key Figures
Population: 82.0 million
GDP growth rate: 2.57 %/year
Energy independence: 29.2%
Total consumption/GDP:* 92.5 (2015=100)
CO2 Emissions: 4.69 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 12.5%
* at purchasing power parity
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Total Energy consumption

Total consumption per capita was around 1.8 toe in 2018 (of which 3 100 kWh of electricity) compared to about 3.2 toe for the EU.

Total energy consumption grew at a rapid average rate of around 4%/year between 2000 and 2018, reaching 148 Mtoe. This increase was particularly sharp over 2014-2017, with an average rate over 6%/year.

Coal and lignite are the main energies consumed ...

Turkey energy report

 Total energy consumption

Crude oil production

Turkey covers only 8% of its total oil needs with a production of 3.3 Mt of crude oil (2018). In 2018, net crude and oil product imports reached 44 Mt (+4.6%/year since 2010). Crude accounts for about 47% of that amount. Crude oil imports mainly come from Iran (34%) and Iraq (31%) (2018).

Turkey has a strategic position for the transit of oil. It connects Caspian countries and Gulf ...

EMEA Refineries Dataset

 Crude oil production

Oil products consumption

Oil product consumption has grown rapidly since 2010 (4.5%/year), peaking at 43 Mt in 2017, mainly driven by the transport sector, before slightly dropping to 41.5 Mt in 2018. Oil consumption was roughly stable between 1995 and 2010, at around 30 Mt.

Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

The transport sector's share of oil consumption increased from 38% in 2000 to around 60% in ...

EMEA Refineries Dataset

 Refined oil products production

Natural gas consumption

Gas consumption grew very rapidly until 2014, from around 15 bcm in 2000 to 49 bcm in 2014 (around 9%/year). Consumption decreased in 2015 and 2016 because of increased power generation from renewables and coal, rose again in 2017 to compensate for low hydroelectric generation, and subsequently decreased again to 50 bcm in 2018.

Around 39% of the gas is used to produce electricity ...

EMEA LNG Trade Dataset

 Natural gas domestic consumption

Coal consumption

Coal and lignite consumption increased by 35% between 2015 and 2018, reaching 125 Mt, driven by the rising power plant demand.

Of the total demand, 78% is used to produce electricity, 15% is consumed by industry, and the remainder is consumed by buildings.

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)

Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2018, %)

 Coal and lignite domestic consumption

Power consumption

Electricity consumption is growing very rapidly (around 5%/year since 2010), reaching 252 TWh in 2018.

Industry absorbs 46% of the total (2018), followed by the services and residential sectors (28% and 22%, respectively, in 2018).

Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)

Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2018, %)

Renewable in % electricity production

The General Directorate of Renewable Energy of the MENR is in charge of implementing policy on renewables.

Turkey aims to produce 50% of its electricity from renewables by 2023. The initial target of 30% set in the Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy was raised to 50% in mid-2018 as it was already surpassed in 2017 with 32%.

In 2005, Turkey introduced its first ...


 Share of renewables in electricity production (incl hydro)

CO2 fuel combustion/CO2 emissions

Turkey has not yet submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). Its INDC, submitted in 2015, set the objective of reducing GHG emissions by 21% in 2030 compared with a BAU scenario. This objective corresponds to a 116% increase from 2012 levels.

Driven by the strong economic growth, CO2 emissions from energy combustion almost tripled between 1990 and 2018, reaching around ...

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